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  • Writer's pictureLeaf Digital

How to Safeguard Your Intellectual Property in China

Protecting intellectual property (IP) in China is crucial for businesses looking to expand into this lucrative market. As the world's second-largest economy continues to grow, the risks of trademark theft and counterfeit products remain high. Companies entering the Chinese market must proactively safeguard their brands to prevent potential losses and legal disputes. This article explores the history of trademark theft in China, explains the intricacies of the Chinese trademark system, and provides practical steps for protecting your brand.

The History of Trademark Theft and Counterfeit Products in China

China has long struggled with intellectual property (IP) theft, significantly impacting foreign businesses. The prevalence of trademark theft and counterfeit goods remains high, driven by economic incentives and historical legal loopholes.

Overview: China's rapid industrialization and market expansion have created an environment where counterfeit products thrive. Despite improvements in IP laws, enforcement can be inconsistent, leading to widespread infringement.

Notable Cases:

  • Adidas: The brand has faced extensive counterfeiting, with numerous fake products bearing its logo appearing in the market. These counterfeit items often replicate the design but not the quality, leading to consumer confusion and brand dilution.

  • New Balance: In a landmark case in 2017, the Suzhou Intermediate People’s Court awarded New Balance $1.5 million in damages. The case involved Chinese companies using logos such as "New Boom", "New Barlun" and “Bew Nalance,” which closely resembled New Balance's iconic "N" logo. This ruling was significant as it demonstrated China's evolving stance on protecting foreign trademarks.

Economic Pressure and Legal Loopholes: Economic pressures on Chinese manufacturers have led to an increase in trademark theft as companies seek alternative revenue streams. Some manufacturers register foreign trademarks in their own names or use relatives' names to avoid detection. These actions complicate legal recourse and often result in foreign companies incurring substantial costs to reclaim their trademarks.

Impact on Businesses: Trademark theft can lead to severe consequences for businesses, including brand dilution, loss of market share, and costly legal battles. Companies must be proactive in protecting their IP to mitigate these risks.

Understanding the Trademark Landscape in China

First-to-File Principle: The first-to-file principle in China grants trademark rights to the first entity that files for them, regardless of prior use. This differs significantly from systems where prior use establishes rights. Consequently, businesses must file for trademarks as soon as possible, ideally before entering the Chinese market. Failing to do so risks another party registering the trademark, which can prevent the original business from using its own brand name in China. This can lead to costly legal battles and loss of market entry opportunities.

Trademark Squatting: Trademark squatting involves individuals or entities registering trademarks without intending to use them, aiming to sell them to the rightful owner at a profit. This practice can severely impact businesses by blocking market entry and causing costly legal battles.

Examples and Potential Consequences: A well-known Western brand entering China might find its trademark already registered by a trademark squatter, preventing its use and leading to potential loss of market share. Businesses may face legal disputes, brand dilution, and significant financial losses in trying to reclaim their trademarks.

A hand presenting a document with another hand stamping the document

How to Protect Your Brand: A Step-by-Step Guide

  1. Conduct an IP Audit Begin by identifying and classifying all your intellectual property assets, including trademarks, patents, copyrights, and trade secrets. Evaluate the current state of your IP protections, identifying any vulnerabilities. This process helps ensure that all IP assets are up-to-date and properly protected.

  2. Register Your IP For patents, file applications with the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO), ensuring that documents are accurately translated. Register trademarks with the China Trademark Office (CTMO) and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), covering both English and Chinese versions of your brand. For additional protection, register copyrights with the National Copyright Administration, providing a public record that can be useful in disputes.

  3. Develop a Chinese Language Mark It is crucial to register both English and Chinese versions of your brand to avoid misuse and counterfeiting. When developing a Chinese name, consider either a literal translation, a phonetic equivalent, or a culturally appropriate new name that suits your brand's identity. You can learn more about Chinese brand naming in our article: Localization and Translation: Creating a Brand Name for Foreign Companies in China.

  4. Customs Recordation To prevent counterfeit goods from being imported or exported, record your trademarks with Chinese Customs. This process involves providing proof of your trademark rights and descriptions of genuine goods, which helps customs officials identify counterfeit products effectively.

  5. Contracts and Due Diligence Ensure all contracts with Chinese partners include robust IP protection clauses, such as confidentiality agreements and clear terms regarding IP ownership and usage. This is crucial because Chinese legal standards and business practices can differ significantly from those in other countries. Without explicit IP protection clauses, proprietary information might be used without permission, leading to unauthorized replication and potential IP theft. Conduct thorough due diligence on potential partners to assess their reliability and history concerning IP rights, preventing future conflicts and maintaining the security of your intellectual property.

  6. Consider Trademark Registration for Export-Only Manufacturing Even if you are only manufacturing products in China for export and have no current plans to sell in the Chinese market, it is wise to register your trademark. Without this precaution, a third party could register your trademark and potentially have your products detained at the port of departure.

  7. Education and Training Regularly educate your employees and partners about the importance of IP protection, the specific risks in China, and the strategies for safeguarding your IP assets. This proactive approach helps in identifying and addressing potential IP issues before they escalate.

  8. Vigilant Monitoring Continuously monitor the market and online platforms for any signs of infringement. Utilize technology, such as AI-powered tools, to enhance your monitoring efforts. Additionally, build a network of reliable informants and industry contacts to gain insights into counterfeiting activities and emerging threats. Regular vigilance allows for quick responses to protect your brand.

Addressing Limited Resources for IP Protection

For businesses with limited budgets, prioritizing trademark protection in China can be challenging but essential. One effective strategy is to focus on the most critical trademarks first—those that represent core products or services. Utilizing local Chinese legal services can also be more cost-effective than international firms. Additionally, leveraging online resources and tools for monitoring potential infringements can help save costs. Despite the initial expense, the long-term benefits of securing your IP, such as avoiding counterfeits and legal disputes, far outweigh the costs. Investing in IP protection ensures brand integrity and market stability.


Protecting your brand in China requires early and proactive trademark registration due to the country's first-to-file principle. Conducting an IP audit, registering both English and Chinese versions of your trademarks, and including robust IP protection clauses in contracts are essential steps. Regular monitoring and educating your team about IP risks are also crucial. By taking these necessary steps, businesses can safeguard their intellectual property, prevent counterfeit issues, and ensure long-term success in the dynamic Chinese market. Investing in IP protection now will pay off in terms of maintaining brand integrity and market stability.

A table with a judge hammer, a note saying "intellectual propert" and a Contract with a magnifying glass

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How does the first-to-file principle affect my trademark application in China?

In China, the first-to-file principle grants trademark rights to the first entity that files, regardless of prior use. If another party files for your trademark before you do, they gain the rights, potentially preventing you from using your own brand name. This can lead to legal disputes and loss of market access. Therefore, it’s crucial to file your trademark applications as early as possible to secure your rights.

2. What is trademark squatting?

3. How can I prevent trademark squatting in China?

4. What should I do if I find a counterfeit version of my product in China?

5. How long does it take to register a trademark in China?

6. Can a foreign business apply for a trademark in China without a local presence?


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